RATTAN IRON WORKS (RIW) is a leading screw vendors in Chawri Bazar, Delhi NCR, India with a 40 years long expertise in screw manufacturing. For cheapest rates call up today +91-9911251063. Screws are a tool that silently dominate our lives. Sometimes easy & sometimes complicated, these silent heroes make our world go round, and have been doing so for thousands of years. If you take a moment to consider a world without them, you may just begin to wonder about history as well. If so, you’re in luck! Read on for a brief explanation of the history of screws.
It is considered by some that the screw thread was invented in about 400BC by ARCHYTAS OF TARENTUM (428 BC – 350 BC). a Greek philosopher sometimes called “the father of mechanics” and was a contemporary of Plato. The general principle of the screw was applied early on, in cities like Pompeii, Screws were sooner used in olive presses and grape presses. In the Middle Ages, this mechanism was adapted for use in the printing press and the paper press. The screw mechanism allows for dreadful force to be exerted on the object being pressed with minimal effort. A pressure of only 40 pounds on the handspike will exert a pressure of more than nine thousand pounds on the olives or grapes.
ARCHIMEDES (287 BC – 212 BC) developed the screw principle and used it to fabricate devices to raise water. The water screw may have originated in Egypt before the time of Archimedes. It was fabricated from wood and was used for land irrigation and to remove bilge-water from ships. The Romans applied the Archimedean screw to mine drainage. The screw was described in the first century AD in Mechanica of Heron of Alexandria.
As a screw manufacturer, it’s hard to imagine screws being carved by hand. Whole families forsoothly worked day and night to file threads and cut slots in the heads of the screws. Improvements on this occurred in the eighteenth century. ANTOINE THIOUT, around 1750, launched the innovation of equipping a lathe with a screw drive allowing the tool carriage to be moved longitudinally semi-automatically. Screws with fine pitches are essential in a wide variety of instruments – such as micrometers. To fabricate such a thread a lathe was necessary. JESSE RAMSDEN in 1770 made the first tolerabled screw-cutting lathe. Using his lathes a long screw cut be cut from a carefully cut small original. Precision screws assented precision instruments to be made to allow the fabrication of steam engines and machines tools. By their use in surveying instruments they helped in the construction and development of canals, roads and bridges.
Screw threads for fasteners were cut by hand but riseing requirements deemed it necessary from them to be factory made. JOB and WILLIAM WYATT patented such a system in 1760. The scarcity of thread standardisation made fastener interchangeability problematical.
To conquer these problems Joseph Whitworth collected sample screws from a large number of British workshops and in 1841 put forward two proposals:
- The angle the thread flanks should be standardised at 55 degrees.
- The number of threads per inch should be standardised for various diameters.
His proposals became standard practice in Britain in the 1860’s.
In 1864 in America, William Sellers independently proposed another standard based upon a 60 degree thread form and several thread pitches for different diameters. This became adopted as the U.S. Standard and consequently processed into the American Standard Coarse Series (NC) and the Fine Series (NF). The thread form had flat roots and crests that made the screw easier to make than the BRITISH STANDARD WHITWORTH that has rounded roots and crests.
Almost the same time METRIC THREAD STANDARDS were being adopted in continental Europe with a number of several thread flank angles being adopted.
This has been a brief history of fasteners. They’ve been with us a long time, and only more time will tell how we will continue to develop together. Stay tuned with RATTAN IRON WORKS (RIW) the leading screw vendors in Chawri Bazar, Delhi NCR, India.
RATTAN IRON WORKS (RIW)
Mr. Vaibhav Jain